We are now pushing all these electrons though both output terminals of the T1 (Marked E) When they travel through the bottom line they go straight to the capacitor but on the top line there is a diode to block them travelling in that direction.
This creates an unbalanced charge of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions in the circuit line the other side of that diode. The positive ions (marked I) and the electrons (marked EE) The more electrons on one side of the circuit and ions on the other the more unbalanced the circuit charge imbalance becomes.
Now we find ourselves at the last stage of the schematic design, the pulse trigger transformer.
There is a small blue coil on the right of that schematic that is the primary coil of the pulse trigger transformer. (The full schematic is below) Every time that our storage stage or multiplier stage fires it pulses millions of electrons past that point and we need that pulsed current or moving current for a transformer to work correctly right.
The difference is this is a T2, this is a ultra high voltage step up transformer like the T1 but much bigger and way more heavily insulated so arking or ionisation does not take place within it. This T2 jumps up the voltage so much that large blue arks of electricity ionise the air and start jumping from probe to probe. The process then repeats and repeats.
This schematic is the real deal and works on exactly the same principle.
These T1’s and T2’s are custom made transformers and are usually made with high tech machinery. They are extremely rare or next to impossible to find in any general electronics stores. It is possible to use flash tube transformers however these are a much lower voltage and not designed for stun gun circuits.
They can be bought in quantity's or single pieces by custom build designers such as the Xgen series transformers. (Look up Xgen Transformers)
The stun gun can cause severe muscle spasms and extreme pain as well as taking away the ability to control the muscles of the body.
If you have heart problems I suggest you pick another hobby rather than SG design as working with these circuits there is a very high probability of shocking yourself from time to time.
I hope that I have explained everything so that you can understand how electrons work along the circuit design.
I found explaining and writing this really difficult but this is by far much more than I ever had when I started electronics. I did not even know resistor values when I started.
I can remember saying to a teacher, I don’t understand how the capacitor and electron flow is working. All I got was him mumbling something about imagine a vacuum cleaner in there.
It didn’t work out to well in the exam when the question came up “explain electron flow through the capacitor circuit” and I wrote there is a little man in there with a vacuum cleaner. I got a big “F grade”. And what the hell it turned out, they didn’t even know the real direction of electron flow. They where teaching it went positive to negative back then.
I hope that you have enjoyed this little adventure.
Things can get frustrating at times but never give up and never back down.
Take a break for the day if you need but never give up.
This acts like a one way gate for the electrons
The electrons desperately want to jump in here to even the charge. When switch fires electrons flood in here moving all electrons around the circuit.
Negativly charged electrons packed in here
As the voltage goes up higher along that top line (marked T) we need more of a higher voltage diode to stop the electrons getting past it.
The diode is there to block the electrons from going one way but it also acts like a one way gate letting electrons travel through form the other side. Once they go through the gate they cant get back. We must keep the electrons travelling in the same direction around the circuit once we complete the next stage.
Now we add the next stage of the circuit the electrons will want to get to the positive charge any way that they can so the whole bottom line and the line on the right hand side right up to the surge arrester flood with electrons as well. All the electrons are being crammed in there and as they cram tighter the voltage or pressure is also getting higher.
When there is an ion electron imbalance the electrons and ions attract to each other. In this time the transformer is still pushing and pulling and in this time the electrons are getting so crammed together in that bottom line they start to fill up the storage device (The Capacitor) Inside the Capacitor the electrons are now being pulled from the opposite plate charged with ions and pushed towards the opposite plate charged with the ions inside the capacitor.
We are now at the point of J1 in the schematic above this is the surge arrester. This is a voltage controlled switch, when the voltage reaches a certain point from one side it will give way and let the electrons flood through from that right hand side with 600 volts of pressure behind them. All the electrons flood in to that positively charged space very quickly to even the charge between the ions and electrons in the circuit.
The voltage can get very high at these stages depending upon your design and final design layout so internal arking across the circuit can take place if not designed correctly or sufficient space is given for circuit pathways.
This is now the final phase of the storage or multiplier stage. The electrons have flooded in and we have to create this unbalance in charge once again so the process can repeat itself over and over again.
We have to clear all the electrons once again from the space marked in blue on the schematic above.
We don’t really have to try very hard as when we start the process over again the T1 starts to push and pull on the electrons and the diode is a one way gate remember like a valve on a pump, every time the electrons are being pushed down it pulls electrons through the gate or diode from the line above and does not let them back through creating the positive and negative imbalance in the circuit all over again.
Paper written by Jason Carroll in October 2012
In this section we look at how a stun gun works and the journey of voltage and current throughout a simple SG circuit.
This section has an easy tutorial on how a stun gun works. It is a question most people ask me “How does a stun gun work” “How does a 9 volt battery create these big sparks. Find out in this section.
How A Stun Gun Works
To start with we will look at the first stage, the driver oscillator. The picture below shows a driver oscillator circuit in its simplest form.
On the oscilloscope we can see that the current is clearly oscillating after running through this circuit.
If we hooked up a battery directly to the oscilloscope we would just get a straight line going across the screen as the current would not be moving or oscillating in any way.
This circuit above is connected to a transformer. Transformers need some kind of moving current to function properly, without the moving current of some form the transformer would work for a split second then stop working again. We must keep the current moving around in some way. We can pulse it push and pull it or alternate it to keep the transformer continuously working.
In the world of SG’s we call this the first stage transformer or the T1. We use the T1 to step up the voltage as high as we can 800v+. This type of transformer is called a step up transformer.
A moving current goes in the transformer and 800v+ of AC alternating current comes out of the terminals on the other side of the transformer. The voltage has been stepped up.
You must remember that voltage measured in volts is different to the current measured in amps. Voltage is the pressure pushing the electrons and current is the amount of electrons being pushed.
This is important when using transformers or the T1. The voltage is stepped up, but the amps are not. The amps go the other way they are stepped down.
You should study transformer theory and voltage and amps. For instance study the history of electronics and voltage to understand why they still use the conventional current theory when working with electronics. (This theory states that current travels from positive to negative) We now know that this is not true, the current or electron flow really travels from negative to positive but in the early days this is what they thought. In the world of electronics most still use this method of conventional current even today as it is easier to work things out and do calculations that way. Well that is what they say ! It does not matter which way round you do it or calculate it. The results are the same, just remember in the back of your mind electron flow is really going the other way around the circuit negative to positive.
I know this can be confusing for beginners to understand. It is much easier for someone who already knows electron flow to visualise this. I will show you the true actual direction of the current flow so there is no confusion.
As the voltage goes up higher and higher the moving current try’s to complete the circuit any way that it can, even by jumping or travelling thought thin air. The higher the voltage goes up the further through the air it can jump or travel to complete the circuit. This becomes a big problem as we travel further down the circuit.
Electricity travels through the air at approximately about 1mm per 1000v. 15mm 15,000 volts etc. As voltage goes higher than 30.000 volts the travel distance differs from this ratio just slightly but that is not a major concern at this stage.
We have now converted our DC direct current from the battery in to AC alternating current by passing it through the T1 transformer. Also we have stepped up the pushing power or voltage by sending it through the T1 transformer. The next stage we go on to is the Multiplier stage or the Storage stage of the circuit design.
I need you to imagine that all the electrons act like a solid or a chain. Imagine that all the electrons are linked together by a small link so if I pull one electron at the top of the chain all of the electrons in the chain move with it around the circuit.
The picture below is a storage stage in its simplest form.
XRS Design systems is not related to the Sgscience Website
Driver Oscillator Stage
Pulse Trigger Transformer Stage