Welcome to the world of Stun Gun and High Voltage Impulse Ignition Design.
When getting started with SG design you must have a solid foundation, like building a house. If you build it on sand you will have serious problems.
Beginner mistakes and errors are the main reason for 80% of newcomers giving up and throwing in the towel when it comes to designing high power impulse ignition circuits because they don’t know where or how to start.
Experts always start with a base foundation circuit. This is a very simple circuit they will always revert back to if they have troubles or problems.
They start with this circuit in its most basic simple form and then build on it and grow on it solving more complex problems as the circuit grows.
As a newcomer to SG design this is essential to have.
There are component packs available with these basic setups for beginners that have a large level of support such as circuit schematic, guide rules, pictured tutorials and step by step design stages to help newcomers.
A well known proven and fully tested impulse ignition component pack with schematics and guides is the xgen beginner level impulse ignition component pack.
Recommended Basic Setup For Beginners and Newcomers:
Xgen Beginner level Starter Component Pack.
Large bag of Crock Alligator Clips.
Breadboard Testing board,
7.4v 2S 20C Lipo and Lipo Charger
Reasonable Multi meter that measures (Voltage / Amps / Capacitance / Resistance / Connection Test Beep)
There are websites around that sell virtually all components you could ever need like the XRS Design Systems website. http://xrsdesignsystems.com
The Xgen Ultra Power T1 & Xgen Pulse Trigger Transformer T2 are included in the starter pack with all of the main components you need. Then when you get the basic skills and knowledge you can upgrade to Advanced level pack for high power output sparks.
A fully pictured step by step guide tutorial is available for Xgen beginner level and advanced level starter component packs. It is a big mistake for beginners to buy separate parts and just try cobbling things blindly together with no support.
When you get the basics it opens up a whole new world in high voltage high power design and you can then build on your simple beginner level circuit xgen platform.
Once you get your first Xgen beginner level component pack you can then try other things upgrading, experimenting new ideas, pushing the limits of SG design.
If anything goes wrong you can just simply revert back to your beginner level circuit base platform and think where you went wrong.
Even the experts use this method as a foundation to work from.
Most expert level designers always keep two separate simple beginner level circuits built and use one as a test circuit for components and the other they use as their main design circuit that they will modify and upgrade. That way if anything goes wrong they can diagnose problems by testing components on the other circuit.
This is not essential but just makes life easier when diagnosing component failures or problems.
Now you have the basic knowledge to move forward in designing and get a good foundation designing SG systems.
Advice For First Starting Out:
Please remember that everything on this site is just a guide for you and your new journey in to the world of electrons. Everything in this site and other sites should never be written in stone. Base everything on your test results not others test results.
You will find that the majority of people have some kind of moral opinion regarding stun gun design. If you ask questions in online chat rooms and websites you will soon find this out for your self.
You will find that these people have no actual opinion of their own, their opinion is usually inline with whatever the mainstream opinion on morning television is. This is mainly due to years of government media and social engineering.
This unfortunately is common place and there are a lot of people around who deem it their duty to force social moral opinion and views upon you. Withholding information and misleading you with cryptic answers is also common place. Some is due to the secrecy of SG design but most is due to people forcing mainstream moral opinion.
To start your journey in to electronics I believe that it is wrong to throw equations at people as it puts people off electronics. You don't need Geoffrey Brainstorm throwing equations all over the place showing how smart he is. This can confuse you and totally put you off electronics all together. You don’t need deep mathematical theory to get in to the subject of electrons and electron flow and charges. Deeper theory can come later in small pieces at a time when you decide it is time or when you get curious.
You will have to learn basic components: Resistor values and Capacitor values, Transistors and Mosfets before you start and practice your soldering skills.
The way that electronics is taught today is next to insane, It seems very complicated to the beginner because there are two main ways that it is taught and they are both back to front from each other. These are Conventional Current and Electron Flow.
You will need to learn one of these if not both to understand electricity and how it works.
With high voltage SG design these principles all stand and are important but design procedures and principles differ from mainstream electronics books.
High Voltage SG design is not exactly the same as normal everyday electronics. The rules are different but the principles are the same. For instance SG design requires miniaturisation of design methods that defy's and breaks standard conventional design methods.
For instance if you design a high voltage transformer using conventional electronics design methods the finished transformer would end up the the size of about 1ft square.
This is no good for SG design as we need small compact and powerful design like the xgen transformer range.
I highly recommend for beginners that you learn to visualise electron flow and voltage before you start electronics.
As an example I think of voltage as a vacuum starting from the positive terminal, sucking all the electrons around the circuit coming out of the negative terminal.
Or you can think of it as cars going along a motorway as grid locked traffic. Voltage as the speed of the traffic and the cars as electrons.
There are many different analogy's for this.
Water going through a pipe for instance. Think of this water in the pipe as electrons flowing and voltage being the pressure pushing them.
Spend a whole day even a week of just looking just at different analogy's of voltage (Potential difference) and current flow (electron flow)
This is vital to understand basic electron flow and charge or you will just get confused later.
You will have to learn electron flow in both directions as taught today in different country's. Some teach Conventional current positive to negative and some teach negative to positive electron flow principle.
I have found it best to know both.
This website may help you understand principles of electricity better.
Remember to keep safe when designing and using machinery.
Never build direct to PCB. Always make an crock clip construction first.
Do not just attempt a big complicated design because you think it will be better.
Always start with a simple basic platform design then upgrade and add to it later.
Always build small sections at a time and test them as they are completed.
Always keep sections simple as possible. When you fully understand them move on and upgrade them.
Always keep your working area clean and clinical and your work precise.
Always read your paperwork first before you start.
( Xgen Guide Rules Especially)
Most people think that stun gun hardware is cheap because you can purchase a low power stun gun for $50. These stun guns have a label of 1 million volts or something silly. This is just a label for marketing purposes and the true voltage is more around 10.000v to 15.000v. In some cases only around 5.000 volts.
The components inside a $50 stun gun are made on a large factory production scale to bring the price as low as possible and build quality is also low as possible. If you used these components in a high power custom made stun gun circuit they would blow instantly.
To purchase high grade custom made stun gun hardware that can achieve five to ten times a normal cheaply made stun guns power you will not pick this hardware up for $50.
Custom designed hardware is more expensive because it is far superior in design quality. It can handle and give much more power and give much bigger spark distance than some cheaply made off the shelf production made stun guns.
Many beginners make their worst mistake right at the start before they have even touched any components.
This is finding a schematic online they want to build and then buying components separately from all over the place then trying to cobble things together with no support structure.
This is a classic mistake made by many beginners.
This is all done usually with the good intention of trying to save a few pennies but usually ends with a circuit that simply does not work.
This cost cutting usually ends up with you putting yourself out of pocket even more in the long run and has the side effect of the beginner getting really frustrated and just giving up all together.
Cost cutting errors are classically made in so many cases with T1 and T2 purchases.
These two components the T1 & T2 are vital inside a stun gun circuit.
The T1 is probably the most essential.
The reason being :
The T1 is like the driving engine of the circuit design, it needs to take as much power as possible from the source in this case the battery and transfer it to the storage stage of the circuit. If it does not transfer energy well it will result in a slower charge time. This means it will not charge the storage bank capacitors up fast enough resulting in a slow circuit spark speed.
The T2 is where the main high voltage is generated. It must have the correct ratio to deliver enough spark distance yet keep amperage high to deliver a thick powerful spark. It must have enough high voltage insulation to hold back tens of thousands of volts on every pulse. It must be small strong and compact in design. It must be able to handle savage power delivery. This is no small feat of engineering design.
These two components are certainly not an area where you want to cost cut.
High power stun gun circuits consume a large amount of power from the battery source especially with a high power stun gun circuit designs.
The T1 and T2 must match each other in delivery specifications or the stun gun circuit will not perform as expected.
Most off the shelf T1’s and Pulse Trigger Transformers are not made for stun gun circuit design and are cheaply made simply for the purpose of lighting applications or lamp applications.
Most Pulse trigger Transformers are made for cheap range lighting circuits and do not have the high insulation and power design of an Xgen Transformer.
Don’t be fooled by thinking you can find alternate cheaper versions online, you will just waste your money and your time. This is a common mistake made by many beginners when purchasing a driving power T1 or T2. You think you can save a little money and end up losing far more money.
Good luck with your new journey in to the world of stun gun design.
XRS Design systems is not related to the Sgscience Website